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Japanese For Beginners; Help for Beginners
Topic Started: Sep 17 2010, 04:39 PM (7,616 Views)
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Hey This is the Forum For Japaness For Beginners =D
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I/me: watashi
My : watashi no
You : anata
Yours : anata no mono
We/us : watashitachi
You (plural) : anatatachi no
Our : watashitachi no
Ours : watashitachi no mono
He : kare
His : kare no
She : kanojo
Her : kanojo no
Everyone : minna
Good morning : ohayo ( gozaimasu)
Goodbye : sayonara
Good evening : konbanwa
How are you? : ogenki desu ka?
I'm fine : genki desu
Good luck : koun / ganbatte
I'll do my best : ganbarimasu
Bad luck : fu-un
Welcome : kangei subeki
Thank you : arigato gozaimasu
Your welcome : do itashimashite
Yes : hai
No : Ie
Edited by Sundirra, Sep 17 2010, 04:41 PM.
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Ohayou gozaimasu: good morning
Konnichiwa: Hello/good afternoon
Konbanwa: good evening
Oyasuminasai: good night
Sayounara: goodbye
Mata ashita: see you tomorrow
Arigatou gozaimasu: Thank you
Dou itashimashite: You are wellcome
Sumimasen: I'm sorry/excuse me
Onegai-shimasu: Please
Ogenki desu ka: How are you?
Hai, Genki desu: Yes, I'm fine
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Hajimemashou: let's begin
Owarimashou: Let's finish (The lesson)
Kyukeishimashou: Let's take a small break
Kikimashou: let's listen
Iimashou: let's say
Yomimashou: let's read
Kakimashou: Let's write
Mou Ichido: Once more
Ii desu: Fine/good
Chigaimasu: That's not right
Wakarimasu ka?: Do you understand?
---Hai, wakarimasu: Yes, I do understand
---Iie, wakarimasen: No, I dont understand
Shitsumon ga arimasu ka?: Do you have any questions?
Shizuka ni!: Be quiet!
Matte Kudasai: Please wait
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A, an ( no translation): a cat = neko
Abandon = suteru ; (person) = misuteru ; (plan) = chushi suru
Abbreviation = shoryakukei
Ability= noryoku
Able = (skillful) = yuno[na] ; be~ to... = koto ga dekiru...
Abolish= haishi suru
Abortion = ninshin-chuzetsu
About = 1. prep (concerning)... = ni tsuite[no]... ; whats it about? (book etc) = nani ni tsuite desu ka
2. adv (roughly: number) ...gurai... ; (time) ... goro... ; be about to... = ...tokoro desu ...
Above = 1. prep ... no ue[ni]... ; (more than) = ...ijo (de)...
2. adv = ue ni
Abroad = live gaikoku de ; go gaikoku e
Abrupt = departure totsuzen [no]
Absent = adj (from school) kesseki [no] ; (from work) kekkin [no]
Absent-minded = bon' yari shita
Absolutely= (completely) honto ni
Absorb = kyushu suru
Abstain = (from voting) kiken suru
Abstract = adj chushoteki[na] ; art chushoha[na]
Absurd = bakageta
Abuse = noun insults nonoshiri ; (of child) gyakutai
Academic = gakko
Accelerate = 1. v/i .kasoku suru 2. production ... no supido o ageru ...
Accent = (when speaking) namari
Acceptable = konomashi
Acceptance = shodaku
Access code = comput akusesu kodo
Accident = jiko ; by accident = guzen ni
Accommodations = shukuhaku-setsubi
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Nichi-youbi - Sunday
Getsu-youbi - Monday
Ka-youbi - Tuesday
Sui-youbi - Wednesday
Moku-youbi - Thursday
Kin-youbi - Friday
Do-youbi - Saturday

San:It is used in most probably everyone including male and is most of the

time used in order to adress someone whom you dont know very well,who is not very

close to you and also for the unknown person.

for example:Naruto san.

kun = friendly, used mostly for boys or male teenagers by their seniors (Name) + kun,or even by their friends.

for example:Yagami kun.

chan = affectionately used between friends/well known colleagues (name) + chan. Used for females only.

for example:Sakura chan

sama = sama is most probably used for the respective persons like king,queen,president master,sometimes with teachers.

it is also a form of san used when addressing customers, in business or incorrespondence or for someone you really respect etc. "Mina sama" =Ladies and gentlemen (equivalent) - NB not direct translation. Sama canalso be used to refer to a company or group name. eg Panasonic sama.

for example:Zetsoubu sama~:-p

chama:it is most probably used for childrem who are from well off family or the children of the presidents or some respective person.

it is a way to show affection.

for example:Rika chama.

Dono = Almost the same as sama, only used when addressing males.

Japanese people would never refer to themselves as (name)+ san, chan, kun etc.

like you cant introduced yourself to other like." hi I am Hijari chan"

well this all .i m coming with another lesson.

Zetsoubu sense or u can say Zetsoubu sama~
Edited by Sundirra, Sep 17 2010, 04:48 PM.
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How are you?お元気ですか? O genki desu ka? (Oh-GEN-kee dess-ka?)

Fine, thank you.はい、元気です。 Hai, genki desu. (Ha-ee, gen-kee dess)

How about you?あなたは? Anata wa? (Ah-nah-tah wa)

What's your name? (lit. "Your name is...")お名前は? O namae wa? (Oh-nah-mah-eh wah?)

My name is ... .... です。 ... desu. (... dess.)

Nice to meet you. (formal)始めまして。どうぞ宜しくお願いします。 Hajimemashite. Dōzo yoroshiku onegaishimasu. (Hah-jee-meh-mash-teh dohh-zoh yoh-roh-sh-ku oh-neh-gah-ee shee-mah-ss)

Please. (request)お願いします。 Onegai shimasu. (oh-neh-gah-ee shee-mahs)

Please. (offer)どうぞ。 Dōzo. (Dohh-zoh)

Thank you very much. (formal)どうもありがとうございます。 Dōmo arigatō gozaimasu. (doh-moh ah-ree-GAH-toh go-ZAh-ee-mah-ss)

Thank you. (less formal)ありがとうございます。 Arigatō gozaimasu. (ah-ree-GAH-toh go-ZAh-ee-mahs)

Thank you. (normal)ありがとう。 Arigatō. (ah-ree-GAH-toh)

Thanks. (informal)どうも。 Dōmo. (doh-moh)

You're welcome.どういたしまして。 Dō itashimashite. (doh EE-tah-shee mah-shteh)

Excuse me.すみません。 Sumimasen. (soo-mee-mah-sen)

I'm sorry.ごめんなさい。 Gomen'nasai. (goh-men-nah-sah-ee)

I'm sorry. (informal)ごめん Gomen (goh-men)

Goodbye. (long-term)さようなら。 Sayōnara. (sa-YOHH-nah-rah)

Goodbye. (informal)じゃね。 Ja ne. (Jah-neh)
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I'm going = watashi ga ikimasu
See you! = mata ne
Surely not! = masaka
Hurray! = banzai
Damn it! = chikusho
What's the matter? = do shita no
How? = do yatte
Why? = doshite?
What are doing right now? = Nani ga anata ga ima yatte iru?
Nothing = nani mo
Listening music = Ongaku o kiku
playing games = Gemu o purei
How do you do? = hajimemashite
Fine, thank you = Bakkin wa, anata ni kansha shimasu
I did it = watashi ga yatta
Do me a favor = ikagen ni shite yo
Thanks for your help = gokurosama
I'm sorry = gomen nasai
Pervert = hentai
Long time no see = hisashiburi desu / Nagai jikan wa sansho shite kudasai
Have a nice day = itterasshai
See, you later = ja, mata
Is it okay? = i desu ka / Te mo ii?
Hey = ne
All the best! = ogenki de

What? - Nani?
Where? - Doko?
Who? - Dare?
When? - Itsu?
Which? - Dore?
Why? - Dōshite?
How? - Dōyatte?
How much? - Ikura?
What type of? - Donna?

Sō desu ne - That's how it is, isn't it?

omataseshimashita - I have made you wait long

Otsukaresama deshita - It's been honorably tiresome

Ganbatte! - Give it your best!

Itadakimasu - I will receive (Said before Eating or drinking)

Shitsurei - Impolite

Shitsurei shimasu - "I will trouble you." or "I will be impolite"

Shitsurei shimashita - "I have troubled you." or "Excuse my impoliteness."

Daijōbu - It is alright

Sugoi! - Great!, Incredible!

Kawaii! - How cute!

Eee~ - Reallyyyyyyy~?

Uso!- "Lie!" (Doesn't necessarily accuse one of lying, usually used in the sense of "Seriously?!")
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What's your name? = Anata no namae wa nanidesu ka? / o-namae o-negai shimasu

My name is ___________. = Watashi no namae wa _______________.

Well, it was nice to meet you. = Ma, sore wa subarashii anata ni aete ita.

It was nice to meet you too. = Sore wa subarashii mo anata ni aete ita.

How are you today? = O genki desu ka?

Fine, thank you. = Bakkin wa, anata ni kansha shimasu.

How about you? = Anata wa?

I'm perfectly fine too. Thanks for asking. = Watashi wa kanzen ni bakkinda yo. Shitsumon itadaki arigato gozaimasu.

I'm doesn't feel well today = Watashi wa, kyo kanjite inai yo.

What's wrong? = Nani ga kiniiranai noda?

Why? = Nazedesu ka? or Doshite?

I got a fever. = Watashi wa netsu o eta.

I have catch a cold. = Watashi ga kyatchi shite samu-sa

Poor you, get well soon my friend. = Mazushii hitobito wa anata ga, hayaku yoku natte watashi no yujin o shutoku shimasu.

Thanks for your concerning. I really really appreciate it. = Anata nikansuru o yose itadaki arigato gozaimasu. Watashi wa hontoni kansha shite imasu.

Make sure you get enough rest, my friend. = Anata wa jubun'na kyusoku o eru koto o kakunin, watashi no yujin.
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Color - Iro
Black - Kuro
White - Shiro
Red - Aka
Yellow - Kiiro
Blue - Ao
Green - Midori
Brown - Chairo (basically, this is 'Cha' (tea)+ 'iro' (color))
Orange - Daidaiiro
Grey - Haiiro
Purple - Murasaki
Gold - Kin
Silver - Gin

Japan - Nihon
China - Chugoku
Korea - Kankoku
Singapore - Shingaporu
Malaysia - Mareshia
Indonesia - Indoneshia
England - Igirisu/Eikoku
Russia - Roshia
Spain - Supein
Italy - Itaria
Germany - Doitsu
America - Amerika
Greece - Girisha
Australia - Ousuturaria

Cat: neko
Dog: Inu
Tiger: Taiga(pronounciation is a little different)
Horse: Uma
Elephant: Zo

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Hajimemashite - First time seeing you.

O namae wa? - What is your name?

Nansai desu ka? - How old are you


'Oikura desu ka?' (Formal)Arigatou (gozaimasu) - Thank you.

Dou itashimashite - You're welcome.


The particle 'は' (wa)[NOTE: This particle is actually the hiragana letter read as 'ha', but is read as 'wa' instead of 'ha' when it is used as a particle.]


Watashi wa gakusei desu. I am a student.

Maki-san wa nihonjin desu.Maki is japanese.

The particle 'も' (mo)- SUBJECT mo NOUN desu.

- SUBJECT is also NOUN.

eg. Watashi mo gakusei desuI am also a student.

The use of 'か' (ka)[Add 'Ka' to the end of a sentence to form a question]


eg. Anata wa gakusei desuka?

Are you a student?

Omatase Shimashita - Sorry for keep you wating

Do shimashitaka? - What's happened?

Nan desuka? - What is it?

Dare desuka? -Who is it

Doko desuka - Where is it

Itsu desuka- When is it

Dochira desuka? -Which is it

Naze desuka /doshite desuka -Why is it so.

Honto desuka? - Is it true?

Honto ja arimasen- It's not true

ja,mata ne^^ ( see you later)

"Ii tenki desu ne." (What a lovely weather!)"

Sou desu ne. Issho ni sanpo shimashouka?" (It is. How about going for a walk together?)"

Sore wa ii kangae desu kedo..."(That's a good idea, but...)"

Ara, youji ga arimasuka?" (Why, do you have something to do?)"

Hai, arimasu yo. Gomen nasai." (Yes, I have. Sorry about that.)

"Iie, daijoubu desu. Itsuka issho ni sanpo shimashou." (Not a problem. Let's go for a walk together one day.)

"Ee, sou shimashou." (Yes, let's do that [soon]).
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Watashi wa totemo shiawaseda - I'm so happy

Watashi wa kanashii - i'm so sad

Nani ga shiawasedesu ka? - what makes you so happy?

Nani ga kanashii nodesu ka? - what makes you so sad?

Gakko ga owatte - school is over

Sono kyujitsu - its holiday

Watashi wa chotto isogashii - i'm kinda busy

A, gomen wa o jama shite - oh, sorry to bother you

Sono daijobu - its okay

Watashi wa jiyuda - i'm free

E e, nai shukudai - Yeah, no homeworks

Watashi wa takusan no shukudai o shinakereba naranai - i have a lot of homework to do

Nani ga anata ga ima yatte iru? what are you doing right now?

Watashi wa anime o mite iru - i'm watching anime

Watashi ga buroguda - i'm blogging

Watashi wa ongaku o kiite - i'm listening music

Watashi wa manga o yonde iru - i'm reading manga

Watashi wa taikutsuda - i'm bored

Nani mo - nothing

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The Japanese grammar has lots of specific features, mostly because it is so scarcely related to other languages. On the other hand it is very sensible, logically very well connected. Some of its features are:

1. in Japanese the predicate always stands at the end of the sentence

2. the verbs don't change depending on the person, gender or number

3. the nouns don't have plural or gender

4. the dependence between words in a sentence is expressed thru particles which follow the words affected.

Personal pronouns

First, the personal pronouns will be covered:

I ----------------------watashi---------------------- わたし 私

you ------------------anata------------------------- あなた

he--------------------kare---------------------------かれ 彼

she------------------kanojo-------------------------かのじょ 彼女

we----------------- watashitachi------------------ わたしたち私達

you---------------- anatatachi-------------------- あなたたちあなた達

they--------------- karera------------------------- かれら 彼ら

The columns are as follows: english, romaji, hiragana and kanji.

There is no neuter gender ("it") in Japanese. There are other forms of personal pronouns too. For example, the most polite form of "I" is "watakushi". Then there is the form that can only be used by men, "boku", and so on...

For "you" males can say "kimi", informally. But "kimi" is not dependent on the gender of the person to whom it relates, but on the gender of the one who talks. Only men can say that! It's a very specific feature of the Japanese language too.

For "they" there are different feminine and masculine forms too: "karetachi" and "kanojochi".


Particles are suffixes which follow promptly after the word that they relate to. They determine the function of that word in the sentence. Some of the most common particles are:

WA - determines the subject in a sentence.

Example: Watashiwa Nihonjin desu. 私は 日本人 です。I Japanese am.

Notice, that "wa" is written as "ha" in hiragana. This is one of the few exceptions in Japanese.

O - pinpoints the direct object

Example: Watashiwa kohio nomimasu. 私は コーヒを 飲みます。 I coffee drink.

This is also an exception, because "wo" is written , but just "o" is read.

NI - indirect object- place marker - time marker

Example: 7jini okimasu . 7じに おきます。 (I) get up at 7 o'clock.

E - marks the direction

Example: Daigakue ikimasu. だいがくへ いきます。 (I am) going to the university.

Also an exception.

NO - indicates possession

Example: Korewa anatano hon desu . これは あなたの ほん です。 This book is yours .

The main function of "no" is to mark possession, but it also has some other minor usages too.

MO - inclusion, addition marker

Example: Karemo gakusei desu . かれも がくせい です。 He too is a student .

"mo" replaces "wa" and indicates that the word before it also has some property.
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chottomaete-wait a minute

moshi moshu-hello(note! this is only used one the phone)

ohayo gozaimasu-good morning

konnichiwa-good afternoon

konbanwa-good evening

sayonara-goodbye(in japanese they normally use matta ne! and ja ne!)

aishiteru-i love you




Hiragana 【ひらがな】

#Hiragana is one of three character sets used in the Japanese language.

#Each Hiragana letter represents particular syllable. Letter itself has no meaning.

#Hiragana is used widely to form a sentence.


Hiragana = あ か た ま や

Original Kanji = 安 加 太 末 也

#Hiragana was developed in the 8-10th century by simplifying the form of particular Kanji symbols.

#Compared to Katakana, Hiragana letters have more curved lines.

Number of Letters

#In modern Japanese, there are 46 basic Hiragana letters.

#In addition to these 46 basic letters called gojūon, there are modified forms to describe more sounds - 20 dakuon, 5 handakuon, 36 yōon, 1sokuon and 6 additional letters.

Gojūon-zu 【五十音図】

In Japanese, syllables are organized in the form of a table (5 x 10). This table is called gojūon-zu (literally means table of 50 sounds).

To describe these sounds, Hiragana and Katakana alphabets are used.

Letters い, う and え appear more than once in the table. These 5 duplicates (gray colored) are usually skipped or ignored.

Another syllable ん is included. It doesn't belong to any row or column.

In total, 46 letters (45+1) are counted as gojūon (50 sounds).

Structure of the Table

The first row - あ [a], い , う , え [e] and お [o] are five vowels of the Japanese language.

Letters in the same column contain the same vowel.

Letters in the same row are considered to contain the same consonant.

Letters お and を represent the same sound [o]. を is used only as the particle in a sentence.

Handakuon 【半濁音】

Handakuon literally means half-turbid or half-murky sound.

Handakuon is indicated with a small circle.
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<About Japanese language>

There was no peculiar character in Japan originally. Based on the Kanji imported from China, predecessors took pains and adapted the Chinese character to Japanese in the Nara period(710-794). The Chinese character used thus is called "Manyogana". ("Manyogana" were used for old books, such as "Manyoshu", "Kojiki", and "Nihonshoki". However, it is too difficult for general people to read "Manyogana" now.) The Japanese notation of the Kana character (Hiragana, Katakana) was produced based on this "Manyogana." Then, the character culture peculiar to Japan different from China progressed.

Japanese consists of three different character sets. Many persons say, "Japanese language is difficult". One of the reason might be the kanji. However, the Kanji can be written in Kana characters. And, the Kanji is unnecessary when talking. "Japanese language education" of Japan starts from the study of Kana characters. All Kanji are not mastered even if it is a Japanese. In short, if you mastered the "Kana character" which is the alphabet of the Japanese language and know the words, you can do communication to some extent.

<Kanamoji (Hiragana and Katakana)>

1. What is Kanamoji (Kana character)?

Kanamoji is a generic name for the character of Hiragana and Katakana. It is equivalent to the English alphabet and the kana character has the 46 standard phonetic characters. Kanamoji is the first step of Japanese language learning.

Hiragana was devised as what is replaced with difficult "Manyogana" at the Heian period (794-1192). Hiragana was formed into the simple style from Chinese character. That is, Hiragana is Ultimate Sosho (fully cursive style). Their shape is rounded and rather simple. For example, the character "" was changed as follows.

*If you want to learn about "Kaisho, Gyosho, and Sosho", please see about the style of handwriting.

Katakana was devised to write characters easily at the Heian period (794-1192). Katakana was formed using a part of Chinese character. Their shape is angular and simple. For example, the character "" was formed from the left part of the following Kanji.

2. Pronunciation of Kanamoji

Kanamoji has 46 standard phonetic characters. These are called "Seion". There are "Dakuon", "Handakuon", "Yoon", "Sokuon" and "Chouon" besides Seion. And, "Tokushuon" was added in order to write borrowed words. If you want to listen to the basic pronunciation of kana characters with a sound, please see page of Listen to Basic Pronunciation Voice.


The alphabet of the Latin alphabet is used so that everybody can read the Japanese language. Those characters are called "Romaji". This is convenient for Japanese first step learning. And, in Japan, generally Romaji is used when inputting the Japanese language into a word processor and computer.

* Seion: Pronunciation of a clear sound.
* Dakuon: Pronunciation of a muddy sound.
* Handakuon: Pronunciation of a middle sound of Seion and Dakuon.
* Yoon: Pronunciation of a distorted sound. "ya", "yu", and "yo" are added under other Japanese syllabaries. (Generally they are written small.)
* Sokuon: Choked pronunciation of sound. Breathing is stopped and pronounced. Indicating with small "(tsu)". (Examples: Interjection " ", " ", Verbs past form " (said)", " (taken)", Adverbs " (more)", " (few minutes ago)", etc.
* Chouon: Pronunciation which lengthens vowels. The symbol of " " is used. It is used for borrowed words, a interjection " " and " ", etc.
* Tokushuon: Katakana of the unique pronunciation. These are used mainly for the pronunciation of borrowed words.

The 1st line of the table is vowels. HanD and HD are the abbreviation for Handakuon.

3. Use of Kanamoji

It is possible to write a sentence by only Kanamoji. However, the sentence of only Kana characters will have pauses of words difficult to understand, and will turn into a sentence which is very hard to read. Therefore, Japanese is usually written by using both Kanamoji and Kanji. Each Kana character does not have a meaning. The use of Kanamoji is as follows.

* Hiraganaending of verbs and adjectivespostpositional particles, auxiliary verbswords without Kanjiindication of the reading of kanji
* Katakanaforeign words, borrowed words, Japanized Englishforeign names and place-namestechnical and scientific wordsnames of animals, plants, etc.onomatopoeiaindication of the reading of kanji

4. Borrowed Words and Japanized English

Japan is a country with many borrowed words. Katakana is used when writing borrowed words, foreign names and place-names. The borrowed word is the word established with the original meaning. "Japanized English" was constructed by combining English words. Although they sound like English, they are the words of expression which is not in original English. As a matter of course, only Japanese people can understand "Japanized English". And, in order that they have flooded too much, we are confused to the difference with original English.

* Examples of borrowed words

The word borrowed from German "Arbeit". A meaning is "work". In Japan, it means short-term labor contracts, such as a side job and temporary employment.

The word borrowed from Portuguese "Castella". This is the baked confectionery imported from Portugal to Nagasaki at the Muromachi period (1338-1573).

The word borrowed from French "Croissant". The word about cooking and dress has much borrowing from French.

The word borrowed from English "Radio".

The word borrowed from Spanish "Medias" or Portuguese "Meias". A meaning is stretchy cloth.
* Examples of Japanized English

"Salary" and "man" were combined. People who are working for a company by getting salary. It is used in the same meaning as "Office worker" of English.

"Personal computer" was abridged.

"Back" and "mirror" were combined. It is used in the same meaning as "Rear-view mirror" of English.

"Pair" and "look" were combined. It is used in the same meaning as "same outfit, matching outfits" of English.

"Paper" and "driver" were combined. It is used in the same meaning as "Sunday driver" of English.

<Note>The symbol of " " is used when lengthening a vowel sound.

<Kanji (Chinese character)>

1. What is Kanji?

The Chinese character was imported from China. However, the Chinese character of Japan has improved so that a Chinese character can be written briefly. For example, the basis of the Kanji "" was "". There are many kanjis which Japanese character culture produced. (The kanji of 10,000 or more are in the "Chinese-Japanese dictionary" of Japan. There is a kanji of 6000 or more which can be used with a personal computer. There are about 2000 also with the "Chinese characters in common use" used usually now.) Please see Japanese Kanji Dictionary with Pronunciation and Japanese Kanji Dictionary help page, if you want to learn in detail about each Kanji.

The Kanji can be written using Kana characters. If so, why does we use the Kanji purposely? The Kanji has the advantage that we can understand a meaning on the shape. For example, it is "" when Kanji is written in Hiragana. There are some words pronounced "" as follows. (Chinese character), (organizer), (inspector), (feeling), a name of a person called Kanji. If it is written as "" in hiragana, we have to interpret the meaning in the context. However, if it has written with the Chinese character, we can understand the meaning only by seeing the word. Of course, if we do not know the Kanji, it is not meaningful. So, it is significant to study the kanji.

2. Pronunciation of Kanji

Kanji has two kinds of readings "On-yomi" and "Kun-yomi". "On-yomi" is Chinese pronunciation. "Kun-yomi" is the original pronunciation of Japan. At the time of "Kun-yomi", "Okurigana(a declensional kana ending)" is added to a Kanji in almost cases. The inside of the parenthesis of the following example is "Okurigana".

3. Jyukugo (Idiom)

Kanji has a meaning in each and is equivalent to a word. They can combine and can make idioms indicating various meanings. The number of idioms has tens of thousands.

4. Yoji-jukugo (Four Character Kanji Compound Word)

Apart from the usual idioms, there are 1000 or more "Four character Kanji compound words" used as a proverb. These features are that there is much amount of information compared with the number of characters.

A partner's thought is understood without using words. To have a tacit understanding.

Clouds are drifting in the sky, and water is flowing. That is, the free heart without tenacity of purpose is expressed.

*If you want to learn more about "Yoji-jyukugo", please see Four character Kanji compound word list.

5. Bushu (Radical)

A radical is one of the component which compose a Chinese character. They were defined as a standard for classifying Chinese characters. The dictionary of the Chinese character is arranged for each radical. When looking for Kanji which pronunciation does not understand in a dictionary, you can search by the radical. There are many radicals which are one of Kanji originally. The Kanji with the same radical often has a common point in a meaning.

<Japanese symbols except Kana or Kanji>

1. Punctuation marks

The punctuation marks used in Japanese are Kuten "" and Touten "". As for the Touten in lateral writing, "" or "" is used. Kuten is equivalent to an English period. It is always used in the end of a sentence. Touten is used in order to make a sentence easy to read and to understand. However, there is no regular rule in this.

2. Iteration marks

Japanese does not have a grammatical plural form per se like English. However, some Kanji can indicate plurality by iterating. The iteration mark of Kanji is "".For example,

* (hito) a person - (hitobito) people
* (toki) time - (tokidoki) sometimes
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